SH Spotlight The Steve Hoffman Forum Glossary

Discussion in 'Music Corner' started by Curiosity, Dec 30, 2007.

  1. Curiosity

    Curiosity Just A Boy Thread Starter

    Location:
    United Kingdom
    Preamble: This glossary thread has been put here by request for newer members who sometimes find it difficult to make out what those of us - who have been here for what seems like an eternity - are talking about.

    It is intended for members to post a question about what a term or expression means and for the members to post back an answer in a intelligent, polite manner.

    This forum has strict rules: One of the most important is that members do not 'threadcrap'.
    The following is what we define Threadcrapping to be:-
    ""Thread Crapping" occurs when a person comes into a thread and posts something contrary to the spirit/intent of the thread, often derailing the discussion or turning it into an argument.

    For example, coming into a thread about "The Greatest Beatles Album" and posting "The Beatles were overrated" is a thread crap. Another example: In a thread titled "I love my new Apple Macintosh!" or someone posting "PCs are better and cheaper" is a thread crap."

    Any posts in this thread that contravene this will be removed by the Gorts (Moderators) and the offender(s) sent a warning.
     
  2. Curiosity

    Curiosity Just A Boy Thread Starter

    Location:
    United Kingdom
    There is a very useful link here for a glossary of Audio Terms from our achieves.
    http://stevehoffman.tv/forums/showthread.php?t=62457

    To start this one off here's a few terms used in our Forum and what we mean by them:

    Crispy: too much treble/high end to the point of being irritating to the ear.
    Goosed: To alter the sound by equalization or other processing from what is on the Mastertape. Often by adding more bass or Treble.
    Futzed: Similar but can take in things such as added echo or altering how wide a stereo image is. A good example is the stereo version of the Beatles Second Album.
    Interestingly the expression "to futz (around) with something" is from Yiddish and has a long history.
    Needledrop: A recording sourced from a record and copied to digital as distinct from being copied from digital or analogue tape.
     
  3. John Cantrell

    John Cantrell Active Member

    Location:
    Outta here
    Flat transfer:

    A mastering done without any additional equalization, noise reduction or maximization of the volume level. Or, a 1:1 copy of the source.

    Unfutzed-with:

    See above.
     
  4. John Cantrell

    John Cantrell Active Member

    Location:
    Outta here
    Target CDs:

    Not discs bought at the chain of stores, a target refers to a WEA first CD pressing. Named target for the distinctive crosshair design on the label side.

    For more information, see Ralph's Target Pages.
    KeithH also has a Target Resource Site.
     
    tob likes this.
  5. Vidiot

    Vidiot Now in 4K HDR!

    Location:
    Hollywood, USA
    No-Noised: a recording that's been processed to reduce or remove tape hiss and other kinds of noise, usually at the expense of creating artifacts in the recording.

    Dynamic Range Compression: not to be confused with Data Compression (MP3s).
    The practice of using compressors and other devices that make loud sounds softer and soft sounds louder. r devices to make loud sounds louder and soft sounds softer. In recent years, some mastering engineers have been guilty of compressing the life out of music, making everything extremely loud. (See also "Loudness Wars.")
     
  6. Grant

    Grant Life is a rock, but the radio rolled me!

    Location:
    United States
    Compression:
    Makes the louder parts in the music softer in volume, and the softer parts louder in volume. There are two basic types of compressors: 1) A broadband compressor works on all of the frequencies at once, and a 2) A band compressor works on certain frequencies, sometimes predetermined by the user.

    Limiter:
    This cuts off the peaks (transients) of an audio signal to a predetermined level with compression. A Limiter is often used with a broadband compressor to make the overall sound louder without clipping a digital signal, or overloading an analog signal.

    Clipping:
    When the digital level (or wave on a digital audio editor) exceeds 100%, or "0" Digital Full Scale (goes over zero) in a 16-bit or 24-bit file. This can also be demonstrated by a peak-reading level meter going into the red. Clipping can cause audible distortion.

    On the SH forum, many members use this term to mean a wave on a digital editor has a "buzzcut" or "brickwall" look about it. However, this does not always mean that the wave is actually clipped.

    Bright:
    Many SH members use this term to mean that the sound is compressed. Other members use this term to mean that there is a presence of a lot of high frequency content in the sound. Sometimes, these two descriptions go hand-in-hand.

    Rolled off:
    The treble is reduced in strength, resulting in a sound that is often described as sounding dull
     
  7. John Cantrell

    John Cantrell Active Member

    Location:
    Outta here
    Brickwalled:

    Refers to an extremely compressed and maximized (loud) masterng, severely lacking in dynamic range. Often also clipped, so that distortion is audible (see Grant's definition of Clipping above).
    Brickwall(ed) is so named for the visual wave form that resembles a solid wall with no, or very little peaks and valleys.
    See fig. a for an example. Fig. b is the same song in an earlier uncompressed mastering,

    Fig. a:

    [​IMG]

    Fig. b:

    [​IMG]
     
  8. KeithH

    KeithH Success With Honor...then and now

    Location:
    Beaver Stadium
    The Gorts would like to recognize member izgoblin for the idea of a forum glossary. Great idea! :thumbsup:
     
  9. John Cantrell

    John Cantrell Active Member

    Location:
    Outta here
    Exact Audio Copy (EAC):

    The best and most accurate CD ripping tool; the forum favorite. In addition to its accurate extraction capabilities, the program is also often used to compare the masterings of different CD pressings by country of origin. (An American vs. a Japanese pressing, for example). If the values are the same, it's generally safe to conclude the masterings are as well.

    It's the musical peaks registered by the tool that are used as a determining factor in mastering comparisons.

    For example -

    These are the values from the original Island CD of Free - Tons Of Sobs:

    Track 1
    Filename Track01.wav
    Peak level 74.6 %

    Track 2
    Filename Track02.wav
    Peak level 98.4 %

    Track 3
    Filename Track03.wav
    Peak level 94.9 %

    Track 4
    Filename Track04.wav
    Peak level 93.6 %

    Track 5
    Filename Track05.wav
    Peak level 100.0 %

    Track 6
    Filename Track06.wav
    Peak level 95.9 %

    Track 7
    Filename Track07.wav
    Peak level 97.2 %

    Track 8
    Filename Track08.wav
    Peak level 91.5 %

    Track 9
    Filename Track09.wav
    Peak level 97.5 %

    Track 10
    Filename Track10.wav
    Peak level 62.3 %


    Here are the values from the same 10 tracks of Tons Of Sobs in remastered form:

    Track 1
    Filename Track01.wav
    Peak level 71.8 %

    Track 2
    Filename Track02.wav
    Peak level 92.9 %

    Track 3
    Filename Track03.wav
    Peak level 97.6 %

    Track 4
    Filename Track04.wav
    Peak level 93.8 %

    Track 5
    Filename Track05.wav
    Peak level 95.3 %

    Track 6
    Filename Track06.wav
    Peak level 92.4 %

    Track 7
    Filename Track07.wav
    Peak level 97.3 %

    Track 8
    Filename Track08.wav
    Peak level 91.6 %

    Track 9
    Filename Track09.wav
    Peak level 98.4 %

    Track 10
    Filename Track10.wav
    Peak level 77.7 %


    So these two are clearly different masterings.

    Best of all, Exact Audio Copy is a free program.
     
  10. LeeS

    LeeS Music Fan

    Location:
    Atlanta
    Redbook:

    A CD recoded at the sampling rate of 16/44.1khz. Based on the Phillips "red book" of specifications of what technically defines a proper CD. Note that some CDs are 16/44.1 but don't meet other "redbook" specs and are thus not considered "redbook".

    Often used on SHTV to distinguish from higher resolution media like SACD or DVD Audio at higher sampling rates.
     
  11. DragonQ

    DragonQ Forum Resident

    Location:
    The Moon
    Why are moderators called Gorts anyway?
     
  12. John Cantrell

    John Cantrell Active Member

    Location:
    Outta here
    Good question. Explained by Steve in his welcome post.

     
  13. keoki82

    keoki82 Active Member

    Location:
    Edmonton
    To expand on Candy's "teaser" definition -

    Needledrop:

    The act of transferring vinyl recordings to digital through the use of a personal computer. This is most commonly achieved by connecting a phono stage output to the analog input on a computer's sound board. An internal sound board, for example, would then digitize the analog signal using an on-board A/D (analog to digital) converter. This digital data can then be stored as single or multiple computer files for quick, convenient editing and/or subsequent burning to a CD-Recordable. The act of "needledropping" is a real-time (i.e., single speed) process which requires a devotion of much free time and attention to detail.

    Needledrops have many applications: such uses include archiving one's vinyl collection for storage, or for quick random access to material which would otherwise require the effort of finding/selecting an album and then physically cueing it up on a turntable. An application that is both common (and highly useful) in the Audio Hardware section at SHTV is to compare needledrops of like pressings using different hardware (e.g., turntables, tone arms, stylus cartridges, etc.) to illustrate the differences in design principles and/or acoustic properties of such hardware.
     
  14. Steve Hoffman

    Steve Hoffman Your host Your Host

  15. Billy Bird

    Billy Bird Forum Resident

    Location:
    UK
    Isn't that technically a threadcrap? ;)
     
  16. Steve Hoffman

    Steve Hoffman Your host Your Host

    Technically a warning.
     
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  17. Perisphere

    Perisphere Forum Resident

    I'd still classify a transfer from a record to digital storage a 'needle drop' even though I don't do such transfers with a computer, but onto either a Masterlink, a mini disc deck or a DAT deck.

    NO-NOISE is the trademarked name for digital noise reduction algorithms developed by Sonic Solutions. Frequently appropriated as a catch-all adjective or adverb for describing heavy-handed attempts at eliminating hiss or other artifacts in older recordings, as in 'That Nat 'King' Cole CD was 'no-noised' to death!'

    CEDAR is the trademarked name for a series of digital noise reduction algorithms developed by Cambridge University in England.

    Note: I don't know if the earlier attempts at a glossary were ever alphabetised, but perhaps the most relevant bits of them can be taken from, consolidated, and finally made into a proper 'sticky' alphabetised glossary, along with whatever is posted here that isn't redundant.
     
  18. Perisphere

    Perisphere Forum Resident

    Here's another term frequently encountered here that may need elaboration:

    DEXTERIZATION, DEXTERISED/DEXTERIZED: Named for the late Dave Dexter Jnr, an executive at Capitol Records who decided upon certain alterations to be made to the sound of many master recordings at Capitol during his years with the company. These terms are usually used in connection with the Capitol Records American releases of The Beatles' recordings before 1967, alterations which include (but are not limited to) adding extra reverb, adding compression, adding boosted bass or treble with equalisation and rendering mono recordings into a form of simulated stereo Capitol called Duophonic (which see).

    DUOPHONIC: The trademarked name Capitol Records used for a process they developed and employed for rendering monophonic recordings into simulated stereo. It is notable for use of both equalisation (more bass and few highs in the left channel, little bass and mostly highs in the right channel) and time delay between the two stereo channels as a way of deriving a sense of 'spaciousness' in the sound. The result has certain artifacts including hearing some details in these recordings sounding strangely 'doubled'. Oftentimes, extra reverb is added to the sound in these versions not similarly heard in the original mono recordings.
     
  19. keoki82

    keoki82 Active Member

    Location:
    Edmonton
    True. I've dropped to MiniDisc before as well. I should have specified that a "personal computer" was one example of how to perform a drop, but not the only method.
     
  20. pig whisperer

    pig whisperer CD Member

    Location:
    Tokyo, Japan
    Breath Of Life

    If it sounds like a fake approximation of nothing that’s alive—that is not it for me. I want it to sound like, (and it doesn’t matter if it is Buddy Holly or Blood, Sweat and Tears or The Doors) I want it to sound like they could be standing in the same room where you are listening. Sometimes I succeed more than others, depending on the quality of the original tape, but that’s what I want. I want it to sound "alive". - Steve Hoffman


    AIR

     
  21. dyno guy

    dyno guy Forum Resident

    Location:
    st.paul, MN, USA
    TAPEDROP:

    The act of transferring audio cassettes which were originally recorded from vinyl records to digital, either to a stand-alone cd burner/recorder, or to a personal computer. One can utilize a direct connection from the tape deck to a cd burner, bypassing a receiver, integrated amplifier, or a pre-amplifier. By using Monster interconnect cables in this direct manner, signal degradation in the transfer process is minimized.

    Tapedrops have a number of useful applications:
    1.) Archiving one's cassette collection, which will eventually wear out from repeated playback, or simply degrade over time, due to heat and humidity.
    2.) Quick accessing of tracks on a cd-r, instead of constant fast-forwarding and rewinding of a tape, which will eventually lead to tape wear and signal loss, especially in the high frequencies.

    O-O
     
  22. Black Elk

    Black Elk Music Lover

    Location:
    Bay Area, U.S.A.
    Clipping occurs in both analog and digital systems, and can be described as the output value being clamped at the maximum limits of the system for certain input conditions. For example, an amplifier will have a maximum output voltage and a certain gain value. Once an input signal is applied that causes the output to exceed the maximum, the output value stays clamped at the maximum level. This causes the output to become flat-topped and the amplifier is no longer working in its linear range where Output = Input x Gain. Similar audible distortion to digital clipping can result.

    Brickwall - I have pointed out here before that the term brickwall in digital audio has long been used to describe the near vertical response of 'classic' anti-alias filters, especially with regard to CD. I do not know who started the, to my mind incorrect, use of the term with regard to heavy-handed limiting/compressing, but it should be pointed out that the term brickwalled is just as valid in the description of audio signals that have passed through a 'brickwall' response filter.
     
  23. Platterpus

    Platterpus Senior Member

    What does the term OOPS mean?

    Thanks,

    Anthony
     
  24. Jamie Tate

    Jamie Tate New Member

    Location:
    Nashville
    Well, OOP means Out Of Print.

    I suppose OOPS could possibly mean Out Of Phase but I'm just guessing.
     
  25. Lord Hawthorne

    Lord Hawthorne Currently Untitled

    Location:
    Portland, Oregon
    More accurately, out-of-phase stereo.
     

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