This is my routine that is the result of needle dropping for the last 3 or 4 years. I've done a lot of ridiculous things along the way and it has been a process of trial and error. This Forum, in fact this thread, has been a great resource along the journey. Equipment: Modified AT LP120 TT - preamp removed, rubber mat and heavier counter weight added, with AT440mla cart to Rega Fono mk2 phono preamp to E-MU0404 USB audio interface. One of the most important steps, clean the records as well as you can. I use a DIY suction setup and/or a Knosti Antistat. Capture using Izotope RX4 Advanced, at 32 bit floating 192000 Hz. Capture at a maximum peak of -6dB. I capture the two sides as two seperate files. I also do most of the rest of my processing in Izotope RX4 Advanced. Firstly I invert the phase as the E-MU0404 inverts the phase in either the conversion to digital or when it sends it to my computer via usb. I do not arbitarily use a set declicking level, such as setting the declicker to 1.0 and running it over the whole file. I would not recommend that, even at low levels for a few reasons. It may do a good job or it will very likely butcher transients somewhere, not do the job well or leave artifacts. The declicker on the RX4 is fantastic, but at times I haven't been able to use it for the reasons mentioned. I listen to the file part by part. Some parts don't need declicking, some just need really light declicking (0.5 to 1.5 single band) and of course some parts need a bit of work, whether it is higher level and/or more focussed declicking, decrackle or denoising. The RX4's denoiser is good if used carefully. I mainly use it inbetween songs or in quiet passages. I then run a High Pass filter at 20 Hz using the RX4 EQ. I then adjust volume. If I were to just normalise the file to a maximum peak of -0.3 dB, then its almost never loud enough, whilst it peaks at -0.3dB, the RMS will still be around -16 / -18 dB, not enough. I'd have to drive my main rig, head phone amp or car stereo at close to maximum volume, not ideal. Initially I started using Ozone's Maximiser (a limiter) to set the maximum peak and then increase loudness. This obviously coloured the sound significantly and not for the better. I'm not criticising Ozone, it may be a good mastering tool, however the records we needle drop are already mastered. How did I resolve this? Well the solution was simple but labor intensive. I normalise the file to -0.3dB and listen, usually it won't be loud enough. So I increase the gain on the normalised file until the volume is right. That's usually (not always) an RMS of around -12dB (-9dB for mono records). Obviously I'm then left with a file with clipping as at points it peaks beyond 0dB. I stress that these are random peaks, if they were consistent, I'd reduce gain, I'm going nowhere near declipping the file. Some records that are very compressed my be fine with straight forward normalisation, some files will only have 1,2 or 3 overshoots. I then zoom into the peaks exceeding -0.3dB and mark them as a region. The overshoots are only usually between 0.1 or 1dB, occasionally a bit more. I then undo the gain adjustments returning the file to its captured volume. I then go to the overshoot regions (which have been zoomed in to the actual spike) and reduce the gain by the margin it would overshoot by, usually a reduction of -0.1 dB to -1dB. I then return the file to the optimum volume I set, leaving a peak of around -0.3dB (or at least under 0dB). I'm left with a file that hasn't been compressed or limited, with dynamics intact and that's a reasonable volume. I then split the file into to tracks and export as 32 bit (floating) 192000Hz Wav files. I then use the standard TPD dither in Saracon to dither to 24 bits.